American Buddhism

A Bibliography on Buddhist Traditions and Schools

in the U.S.A. and Canada

June 1999

by Martin Baumann

Note:
During the past two decades, research on Buddhism in North America has expanded tremendously. This bibliography is meant to serve as a preliminary guide to the main scholarly accounts on the history, development and state of affairs of Buddhism in the U.S.A. and Canada. It is not intended to provide an exhaustive listing of studies. Rather, mainly important books and articles are compiled herein. These are added by some few practitioners' observations or memoires and occasionally followed by references to web-pages, videos and films. These listings certainly remain incomplete and suggestions for further entries are gratefully appreciated. The bibliography is structured in a threefold way:

  • Section 1 lists studies surveying generally Buddhism in North America.
  • Section 2 delineates 'American Buddhism' according to the variety of Buddhist traditions and schools. This section is arranged roughly in accordance with a tradition's appearance in North America.
  • Section 3 refers to issues at stake in the history and adaptation of Buddhism in North America.
  •  

      1. General Studies. Surveying American Buddhism
        1. Basic Books and Editions

        Fields, Rick. How the Swans Came to the Lake. A Narrative History of Buddhism in America. 1981. 2nd ed., rev. and updated 1988. 3rd ed., rev. and updated. Boulder, CO: Shambhala Publ., 1992.

        Layman, Emma. Buddhism in America. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976.

        Prebish, Charles S. American Buddhism. North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, 1979.

        Prebish, Charles S. Luminous Passage. The Practice and Study of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

        Prebish, Charles S. and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.); The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press 1998.

        Seager, Richard Hugh, Buddhism in America. Columbia Series on Contemporary American Religions. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

        Williams, Duncan Ryuken and Christopher S. Queen (eds.). American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999.

         

        2. Directories and Compilation of University Theses

        Lorie, Peter and Hillary Foakes (eds.). The Buddhist Directory: The Total Buddhist Resource Guide. Boston: Tuttle, 1997.

        Morreale, Don (ed.), The Complete Guide to Buddhist America. Sante Fe, 2nd ed., rev. and updated. Bosotn, London: Shambhala, 1998 (first ed. New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1988)

        Williams, Duncan Ryuken. "Dissertations and Thesis on American Buddhism." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 262-266. [75 titles]

        Williams, Duncan Ryuken. "North American Dissertations and Theses on Topics Related to Buddhism." In In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 267-311. [some 850 titles]

        "DharmaNet's US Guide to Dharma Centres" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.dharmanet.org/Dir/Usa

         

        3. Further Books and Articles

        Albanese, Catherine L. America: Religions and Religion. 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1992, 310-318.

        Batchelor, Stephen. The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1994.

        Baumann, Martin. "Buddhism in the West: Phases, Orders and the Creation of an Integrative Buddhism." Internationales Asienforum 27, 3-4 (1996), 345-362.

        Baumann, Martin. "The Dharma has come West. A Survey of Recent Studies and Sources." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 4 (1997), 194-211, http://jbe.gold.ac.uk/4/baum2.html. Repr. Critical Review of Books in Religion 10 (1997), 1-14.

        Cabezón, José. "Buddhist Studies as a Discipline and the Role of Theory." Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 18, 2 (Winter 1995), pp. 231-68.

        Coleman, Graham (ed.). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture: A Guide to Tibetan Centres and Resources Throughout the World. London: Rider, 1993.

        Cox, Harvey. Turning East: The Promise and Peril of the New Orientalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.

        Eck, Diana L. (with the Pluralism Project at Harvard University). On Common Ground: World Religions in America. New York: Columbia University Press CD-Rom, 1997.

        Ellwood, Robert S. "Buddhism in the West." In Mircea Eliade (ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan, 1987, Vol. 2, 436-439.

        Fields, Rick. "The Future of American Buddhism." The Vajradhatu Sun 9, 1 (1987), 1, 22, 24-26.

        Fields, Rick. "Confessions of a White Buddhist." Tricycle: The Buddhist Review 4, 1 (1994), 54-56.

        Hunter, Louise. Buddhism in Hawaii. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1971.

        Jackson, Carl T. The Oriental Religions and American Thought. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981.

        Jackson, Carl T. "The Influence of Asian upon American Thought: A Bibliographical Essay." American Studies International 22 (1984), 3-31.

        Kornfield, Jack. "Is Buddhism Changing North America?" In Don Morreale (ed.), Buddhist America: Centers, Retreats, Practices. Sante Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1988, xi-xxviii, repr. in the 2nd ed., 1998,

        Lancaster, Lewis R. "Buddhism in the United States: The Untold and Unfinished Story." Shambhala Review 5, 1-2 (1976), 23-25.

        Macy, Joanna. "The Balancing of American Buddhism," Primary Point 3, 1 (February 1986).

        Prebish, Charles S. "Reflections of the Transmission of Buddhism to America." In Jacob Needleman and George Baker (eds.), Understanding the New Religions. New York: Seabury Press, 1978, 153-72.

        Prebish, Charles S. "Karma and Rebirth in the Land of the Earth-Eaters." In Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Development. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1986.

        Prebish, Charles S., "Ethics and Integration in American Buddhism." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995), 125-139.

        Rapaport, Al (ed.). Buddhism in America: The Official Record of the Landmark Conference on the Future of Buddhist Meditative Practices in the West. Boston: Tuttle, 1997.

        Rawlinson, Andrew. The Book of Enlightened Masters: Western Teachers in Eastern Traditions. Chicago and La Salle: Open Court, 1997.

        Seager, Richard Hughes. "Buddhist Worlds in the U.S.A: A Survey of the Territory." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 238-261.

        Strain, Charles R. "The Pacific Buddha's Wild Practice: Gary Snyder's Environmental Ethic." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 143-167.

        Tamney, Joseph B. American Society in the Buddhist Mirror. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992.

        Tanaka, Kenneth K. "Epilogue: The Colors and Contours of American Buddhism. In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 287-298.

        Tonkinson, Carole (ed.). Big Sky Mind: Buddhism and the Beat Generation. New York: Riverhead Books, 1995.

        Tweed, Thomas A. and Stephen Prothero, Asian Religions in America: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

        "Journal of Buddhist Ethics" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://jbe.gold.ac.uk/

        "CyberSangha. The Buddhist Alternative Journal" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL: http://www.hooked.net/~csangha/

        "Tricycle: The Buddhist Review" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.tricycle.com/

         

        4. Buddhism in Canada

        Eldershaw, Lynn and Lorne L. Dawson. "Refugees in the Dharma: The Buddhist Church of Halifax as a Revitalization Movement." In North American Religion 4 (1995), Wilfred Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1-45.

        McLellan, Janet, "The Role of Buddhism in Managing Ethnic Identity among Tibetans in Lindsay, Ontario." Canadian Ethnic Studies 19, (1987), 63-76.

        McLellan, Janet. "Hermit Carbs and Refugees: Adaptive Strategies of Vietnamese Buddhists in Toronto." In Bruce Mathews (ed). The Quality of Life in Southeast: Transforming Social, Political and Natural Environments, Montreal: McGill University, S. 203-219.

        McLellan, Janet. "Buddhist Identities in Toronto: The Interplay of Local, National and Global Contexts." Social Compass 45, 2 (1998), 227-245.

        McLellan, Janet. Many Petals of the Lotus. Asian Buddhist Communities in Toronto. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

        Mullins, Mark R. "The Organizational Dilemmas of Ethnic Churches: A Case Study of Japanese Buddhism in Canada." Sociological Analysis 49, 3 (1988), 217-233.

        Sugunasiri, Suwanda H.J. "Buddhism in Metropolitan Toronto: A Preliminary Overview." Canadian Ethnic Studies 21, 2 (1989), 83-103.

        "Buddhism in Canada" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.interlog.com/~klima/toronto.html


     
      2. Buddhist Traditions and Schools in North America
    1. Chinese Buddhism

    Chandler, Stuart. "Chinese Buddhism in America: Identity and Practice." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 13-30.

    Chandler, Stuart. "Placing Palms Together: Religious Cultural Dimensions of the Hsi Lai Temple Political Donations Controversy." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1998, 36-56.

    Lee, Rose Hum. The Chinese in the United States. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960.

    Lin, Irene. "Journey to the Far West: Chinese Buddhism in America." Amerasia Journal 22, 1 (1996), 107-132.

    Miller, Stuart Creighton. The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese, 1785-1882. Berkeley, Los Angeles: The University of California Press 1969.

    Pitkow, Marlene. "A Temple for Tourists in New York Chinatown," Journal of American Culture 10 (1987), 107-114.

    Wells, Marianne Kaye. Chinese Temples in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962; repr. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates Reprints 1971.

    "Buddhist Association of the United States (BAUS)" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.baus.org/

    "Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu-Chi Foundation" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.tzuchi.org/

    "Ch’an Meditation Society" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.chan1.org/

     

    2. Japanese Buddhism: Pure Land: Jodo Shinshu

    Becker, Carl. "Japanese Pure Land Buddhism in Christian America." Buddhist-Christian Studies 10 (1990), 143-56.

    Bloom, Alfred. "Shin Buddhism in America: A Social Perspective." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 31-47.

    Bloom, Alfred. "The Unfolding of the Lotus: A Survey of Recent Developments in Shin Buddhism in the West." Buddhist-Christian Studies 10 (1990), 157-64.

    Buddhist Churches of America. Buddhist Churches of America: Seventy-Five Year History, 1899-1974. 2 volumes. Chicago: Nobart, 1974.

    Fung, Gordon L. and Gregory Fung. "Adapting Jodo-Shinshu Teaching for the West: An Approach Based on the American Work Ethic." Pacific World NS 9 (Fall 1993), 24-31.

    Kashima, Tetsuden. Buddhism in America: The Social Organization of an Ethnic Religious Organization. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.

    Kashima, Tetsuden. "The Buddhist Churches of America: Challenges for a Change in the 21st Century. Pacific World NS 6 (Fall 1990), 28-40.

    Lee, Robert. "Imagined Communities: Asian-America in the 1990s." Journal of American-East Asian Relations 3 (1994), 181-91.

    Tanaka, Kenneth K. Ocean: When Talking to Non-Buddhist and Other Buddhist About Jodo-Shinshu Buddhism. Berkeley: Wisdom Ocean Publ., 1997.

    Tanaka, Kenneth K. "Issues of Ethnicity in the Buddhist Churches of America." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 3-19.

    Tuck, Donald. Buddhist Churches of America: Jodo Shinshu. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1987.

    Yanagawa, Keiichi (ed.). Japanese Religions in California. Tokyo: University of Tokyo, 1983.

    "LinksPitaka, Jôdo Shinshû" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.pitaka.ch/shinshu.htm

    "The Asian-American Cybernauts Page" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://netasia.com/~ebihara/wataru_aacyber.html

     

    3. Japanese Buddhism: Zen

    Activity Committee in Association of Soto Zen Buddhists, Buddha’s Seeds Taking Firm Roots in North American Soil. Los Angeles: Association of Soto Zen Buddhists, 1997.

    Aitken, Robert. Taking the Path of Zen. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982.

    Aitken, Robert. Original Dwelling Place: Zen Buddhist Essays. Washington, D. C.: Counterpoint, 1997.

    Ames, Van Meter. Zen and American Thought. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1962.

    Asai, Senryo and Duncan Ryuken Williams, "Japanese American Zen Temples: Cultural Identity and Economics. In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmaond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 20-35.

    Finney, Henry C. "American Zen's 'Japan Connection:' A Critical Case Study of Zen Buddhism's Diffusion to the West." Sociological Analysis 52, 4 (1991), 379-96.

    Furlong, Monica, Zen effects, the Life of Alan Watts. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986.

    Glassman, Bernard and Rick Fields. Instruction to the Cook: A Zen Master’s Lessons in Living a Life That Matters. New York: Bell Tower, 1996.

    Hori, G. Victor Sogen. "Japanese Zen in America: Americanizing the Face in the Mirror." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 50-78.

    Hori, G. Victor Sogen. "Sweet-and-Sour Buddhism." Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, 4, 1 (1994), 48-52.

    Hoshino, Eiki. "The Birth of an American Sangha: an Analysis of a Zen Center in America." In Keiichi Yanagawa (ed.), Japanese Religions in California. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Department of Religious Studies, 1983, 29-72.

    Kapleau, Philip. The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment. Weatherhill, 1965. repr. Boston: Beacon Press 1967.

    Kitagawa, Joseph T. "Buddhism in America, with Special Reference to Zen." Japanese Religions 5 (1967), 32-57.

    Kraft, Kenneth. "Recent Developments in North American Zen." In Kenneth Kraft (ed.), Zen: Tradition and Transition. New York: Grove Press, 1988, 178-198.

    Loori, John Daido. The Eight Gates Of Zen: Spiritual Training in a American Zen Monastery. Mt. Tremper, N.Y.: Dharma Communications, 1992.

    Loori, John Daido. The Heart Of Being: Moral And Ethical Teachings Of Zen Buddhism. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle, 1996.

    Lachs, Stuart. "A Slice of Zen in America." New Ch'an Forum 10 (1994), 12-20.

    MacPhillamy, Douglas J. "Some Personality Effects of Long-term Zen Monasticism and Religious Understanding" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 25,3, (1986), 304-319.

    Metcalf, Franz. "Zen in the West." Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World. New York: Crossroad, 1999, 496-510.

    Senzaki, Nyogen, and Nakagawa Soen, Eido Shimano. Namu Dai Bosa: A Transmission of Zen Buddhism to America. ed. by Louis Nordstrom. New York: Zen Studies Center, 1976.

    Preston, David L. The Social Organization of Zen Practice. Constructing Transcultural Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

    Sharf, Robert H."Sanbokyodan: Zen and the Way of the New Religions." Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22, 3-4 (1995), 417-458

    Schneider, David. Street Zen: The Life and Work of Issan Dorsey. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.

    Shainberg, Lawrence. Ambivalent Zen: A Memoir. New York: Pantheon, 1995.

    Storlie, Erik Fraser. Nothing on My Mind: An Intimate Account of American Zen. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1996.

    Tipton, Steven M. Getting Saved from the Sixties: Meaning in Conversion and Social Change. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press 1982.

    Tworkov, Helen. Zen in America: Profiles of Five Teachers. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1989; repr. New York: Kodansha America, Inc., 1994.

    Watts, Alan. Beat Zen, Square Zen, and Zen. Revised edition. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1959.

    "Harada-Yasutani School of Zen Buddhism" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/ZenPages/HaradaYasutani.html

    "Kwan Um School of Zen" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.kwanumzen.com/

    "San Francisco Zen Center" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.sfzc.com/index.html

    "Zen Center of Los Angeles" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.zencenter.org

    "Zen Mountain Monastery" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.zen-mtn.org/zmm/

    Watching the Rock Grow: the History of Zen Mountain Monastery, [videocassette] exec. prod. John Daido Loori, 64 min., Dharma Communications, 1990.

    Now I Know You: A Video Tribute to Taizan Maezumi Roshi, [videocassette] exec. prod. John Daido Loori, 56 min., Dharma Communications, 1996.

    Zen Center: Portrait of an American Zen Community, [videocassette] directed by Lou Hawthorne, produced by Anne Cushman. 53 minutes. Albuquerque: Miracle Productions. VHS videocassette, 1987.

     

    4. Japanese Buddhism: Nichiren Shoshu and Soka Gakkai

    Hammond, Phillip E. and David W. MacHacek. Soka Gakkai in America: Accommodation and Conversion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

    Hammond, Phillip and David MacHacek. "Supply and Demand: The Appeal of Buddhism in America." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 100-114.

    Hurst, Jane. Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism and the Soka Gakkai in America: The Ethos of a New Religious Movement. New York: Garland Press, 1992.

    Hurst, Jane. "Nichiren Shoshu and Soka Gakkai in America: The Pioneer Spirit." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 79-97.

    McIntosh, Sandy. "As American As Apple Pie? An Insider's View of Nichiren Shoshu." Tricycle: The Buddhist Review 2, 2 (Winter 1992).

    Metraux, Daniel. The History and Theology of Soka Gakkai: A Japanese New Religion. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.

    Metraux, Daniel. The Lotus and the Maple Leaf: The Soka Gakkai Buddhist Movement in Canada.Lewiston, NY: University Press of America, 1996.

    Snow, David A. "Organization, Ideology and Mobilization: The case of Nichiren Shoshu in America." In David G. Bromley and Phillip E. Hammond (eds.), The Future of New Religious Movements. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1987, 153-72.

    Snow, David A. Shakubuku: A Study of the Nichiren Shoshu Buddhist movement in America, 1960-1975. New York: Garland Publ., 1993.

    "Nichiren Web Sites" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://vanbc.wimsey.com/~glenz/nichsite.html

    "SGI-USA" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://sgi-usa.org/

     

    5. Vietnamese and Korean Buddhism

    Bankston, Carl L. and Min Zhou. "The Ethnic Church, Ethnic Identification, and the Social Adjustment of Vietnamese Adolescents." Review of Religious Review 38, 1 (1996), 18-37.

    Barber, A.W. and Cuong T. Nguyen. "Vietnamese Buddhism in North America: Tradition and Acculturation." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 129-146.

    Breyer, Chloe Anne. "Religious Liberty in Law and Practice: Vietnamese Home Temples and the First Amendment." Journal of Church and State 35 (Spring 1993), 368-401.

    Eui-Young Yu, "The Growth of Korean Buddhism in the United States, with Special Reference to Southern California." Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, NS, 4 (1988), 82-93.

    Farber, Don and Fields, Rick. Taking Refuge in L.A.: Life in a Vietnamese Buddhist Temple. New York: Aperture Foundation, 1987.

    Hein, Jeremy. From Vietnam, Laos and Combadia: Refugee Experience in the United States, New York: Twayne Publ., 1995.

    McLellan, Janet. "Hermit Carbs and Refugees: Adaptive Strategies of Vietnamese Buddhists in Toronto." In Bruce Mathews (ed). The Quality of Life in Southeast Asia. CCSEAS 1 (1992), 203-320.

    Rutledge, Paul James. "The Role of Religion in Ethnic Self-Identity: The Vietnamese in Oklahoma City, 1975-1982". Ph.D. diss., University of Oklahoma, 1982. published 1985.

    Soeng, Mu. "Korean Buddhism in America: A New Style of Zen." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 117-128.

     

    6. Laotian and Cambodian Buddhism

    Canda, Edward R. and Thitiya Phaobtong. "Buddhism as a Support System for Southeast Asian Refugees." Social Work 37, 1 (1992), 61-67.

    Hein, Jeremy. From Vietnam, Laos and Combadia: Refugee Experience in the United States, New York: Twayne Publ., 1995.

    Mortland, Carol A. "Khmer Buddhists in the United States: Ultimate Questions." In May M. Ebihara and Judy Ledgerwood (eds.), Cambodian Culture since 1975. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984, 72-90.

    Van Esterik, Penny. Taking Refuge: Lao Buddhists in North America, Tempe, AZ: Program for Southeast Asian Studies, Arzona State University, 1992.

    Van Esterik, Penny. "Ritual and the Performance of Buddhist Identity among Lao Buddhists in North America." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 57-68.

    Rebuilding the Temple: Cambodians in America, [film] by Claudia Levin and Lawrence Hott, Direct Cinema Limited, 1991.

     

    7. Theravada Tradition and Vipassana Meditation

    Bankston, Carl L. "Bayon Lotus: Theravada Buddhism in South-Western Louisiana." Sociological Spectrum 17, 4 (1997), 453-472.

    Fronsdal, Gil. "Insight Meditation in the United States: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 163-180.

    Fronsdal, Gil. "Theravada Spirituality in the West." Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World. New York: Crossroad, 1999, 482-495.

    Numrich, Paul David. "Vinaya in Theravada Temples in the United States." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 1 (1994), 23-32.

    Numrich, Paul David. Old Wisdom in the New World: Americanization in Two Immigrant Theravada Buddhist Temples. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1996.

    Numrich, Paul David. "Theravada Buddhism in America: Prospect for the Sangha." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 147-161.

    "Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery" [on-line] (May 1999) URL http://www.abhayagiri.org/

    "Insight Meditation Society Homepage" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.dharma.org/ims.htm

    "Metta Forest Monastery" [on-line] (May 1999) URL

    "Thai Temples in North America" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.dharmanet.org/Dir/thai-wat.html

    "The Vipassana Page" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/

    Blue Collar and Buddha, [documentary film] by Taggart Siegel, Siegel Productions, 1988.

    Becoming the Buddha in LA, [film] produced and directed by Michael Camerini, WGBH Educational Foundation, 1993.

     

    8. Tibetan Buddhism

    Bell, Sandra, "'Crazy Wisdom,' Charisma, and the Transmission of Buddhism in the United Staes." Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 2, 1 (1998), 55-75.

    Butterfield, Stephen. The Double Mirror: A Skeptical Journey into Buddhist Tantra. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1994.

    Chogyam Trungpa, Meditation in Action. Berkeley: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1969.

    Chogyam Trungpa, Shambhala: the Sacred Path of the Warrior. ed. by Carolyn Rose Gimian. Boulder, CO: Shambhala Publ., Inc., 1984.

    Dawson, Lorne and Lynn Eldershaw. "Shambala Warriorship: Investigating the Adaptations of Imported New Religious Movements." In Bertrand Ouellet and Richard Bergeron (eds.), Croyances et Sociétes. Communications présentés au dixième colloque international sur les nouveaux mouvements religieux, held at Montreal in 1996; Montreal, 1998, 198-232.

    Goss, Robert E. "Buddhist Studies at Naropa: Sectarian or Academic." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 215-237.

    Kamenitz, Rodger. "Robert Thurman Doesn't Look Buddhist." The New York Times Magazine. 5 May, 1996, 46-49.

    Kane, Stephanie. "Sacred Deviance and AIDS in a North American Buddhist Community." Law and Policy.16 (1994, 323-339.

    Korom, Frank. "Old Age Tibet in New Age America." In Frank Korom (ed.). Constructing Tibetan Culture. Contemporary Perspectives. St-Hyacinthe, Canada: World Heritage Press, 1997, 73-97.

    Korom, Frank. "Tibetans in Exile: A Euro-American Perspective." Passages: Journal of Transnational and Transcultural Studies 1, 1 (1999), 1-23.

    Lavine, Amy. "Tibetan Buddhism in America: The Development of American Vajrayana. In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 99-115.

    McLagan, Meg. "Mystical Visions in Manhattan: Deploying Culture in the Year of Tibet." In Frank Korom (ed.). Tibetan Culture in the Diaspora. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Science, 1997, 69-89.

    Messerschmidt, D. A. "Innovation in Adaptation: Tibetan Immigrants in the United States." Tibet Society Bulletin 10 (1976), 48-70.

    Surya Das, Lama. Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. New York: Broadway Books, 1997.

    Swick, David. Thunder and Ocean: Shambhala & Buddhism in Nove Scotia Lawrencetwon Beach, Nova Scotia: Pottersfield Press, 1996.

    "Dzogchen Foundation" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.dzogchen.org/

    "Free Tibet" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.tibet.org/index.html.

    "Diamond Way Buddhism: Karma Kagyu Buddhist Network" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.kkbn.com/

    "Karma Triyana Dharmachakra: the North American Seat of the Seventeenth Gwalya Karmapa" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.kagyu.org/

    "Nyingma in the West" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.nyingma.org/

    "Ocean of Merit" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.namoguru.org

    "Welcome to Shambhala" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.shambhala.org/

     

    9. Western Buddhism, 'New Buddhism'

    Sangharakshita. New Currents in Western Buddhism. Glasgow: Windhorse, 1990.

    Sangharakshita. The FWBO and 'Protestant Buddhism' - An Affirmation and a Protest. Glasgow: Windhorse, 1992.

    Subhuti, Dharmacari (Alex Kennedy). Buddhism for Today: A Portrait of a New Buddhist Movement. 1983. 2nd ed., rev. and updated Glasgow: Windhorse Publications, 1988.

    Subhuti, Dharmacari. Sangharakshita: A New Voice in the Buddhist Tradition. Glasgow: Windhorse Publications, 1994.

    "The Friends of the Western Buddhist Order" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.fwbo.com/

    History of the FWBO (1964-1979) [four-part video series]


     

      3. Topcis and Issues in American Buddhism

        1. Buddhism and Early Encounter

        Henderson, Harold. Catalyst for Controversy: Paul Carus of Open Court. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

        Jackson, Carl T. "The Meeting of East and West: The Case of Paul Carus." Journal of the History of Ideas 29 (1968), 73-92.

        Prothero, Stephen. The White Buddhist: the Asian Odyssey of Henry Steel Olcott. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

        Seager, Richard Hughes. The World's Parliamient of Religions: The East-West Encounter, Chicago, 1893. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

        Tweed, Thomas A. The American Encounter with Buddhism Buddhism: 1844-1912. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

        Verhoeven, Martin. "Americanizing the Buddha: Paul Carus and the Transformation of Asian Thought." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 207-227.

         

        2. Engaged Buddhism

        Badiner, Allan Hunt (ed.). Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1990.

        Eppsteiner, Fred (ed.). The Path of Compassion: Writings on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1988.

        Jones, Ken. The Social Face of Buddhism: An Approach to Political and Social Activism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1989.

        King, Sallie B. "Contemporary Buddhist Spirituality and Social Activism." Buddhist Spirituality: Later China, Korea, Japan and the Modern World. New York: Crossroad, 1999, 455-481.

        Kraft, Kenneth (ed.). Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism and Nonviolence. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press, 1992.

        Kotler, Arnold (ed.). Engaged Buddhist Reader. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1996.

        Nhat Hanh, Thich. Interbeing: Fourteen Guidelines for Engaged Buddhism. Rev. ed., ed. by Fred Eppsteiner, Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1993.

        Queen, Christopher (ed.), Engaged Buddhism in the West. Wisdom Publ. 1999.

        Rothberg, Donald. "Responding to the Cries of the World: Socially Engaged Buddhism in North America. In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 266-286.

        Sponberg, Alan. "Green Buddhism and the Hierarchy of Compassion." The Western Buddhist Review 1 (December 1994), 131-55.

        Williams, Duncan Ryuken. Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Cambridge: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, 1997.

        "Buddhist Peace Fellowship" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.bpf.org/

        "Engaged Buddhism" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.dharmanet.org/engaged.html

         

        3. Women Roles and Involvement in Buddhism

        Boucher, Sandy. Turning the Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism. Boston: beacon Press, 1988; updated and expanded edition. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.

        Boucher, Sandy. Opening the Lotus: A Women's Guide to Buddhism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1997.

        Dresser, Marianne (ed.). Buddhist Women on the Edge: Contemporary Perspectives from the Western Frontier. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1996.

        Friedman, Lenore. Meetings With Remarkable Women: Buddhist Teachers in America. Boston: Shambhala, 1987.

        Gross, Rita. Buddhism After Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1993.

        Gross, Rita. "Helping the Iron Bird Fly: Western Buddhist Women and Issues of Authority in the Late 1990s." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 238-252.

        Klein, Anne C. Meeting the Great Bliss Queen: Buddhists, Feminists, and the Art of Self. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.

        Sidor, Ellen S. (ed.). A Gathering of Spirit: Women Teaching in American Buddhism. Cumberland, R.I.: Primary Point Press, 1987.

        Tsomo, Karma Lekshe (ed.). Buddhism Through American Women's Eyes. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1995.

        "Women in Buddhism" [on-line] (17 May, 1999) URL http://www.sju.edu/~dcarpent/2161/BIBLIO/Women.html

         

        4. Theoretical and Methodological Questions

        Fields, Rick. "Divided Dharma: White Buddhists, Ethnic Buddhists and Racism." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 196-206.

        Lopez, Donald S. (ed.). Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism under Colonialism. Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1995.

        Mullins, Mark R. "The Transplantation of Religion in Comparative Sociological Perspective." Japanese Religion 16, 2 (1990), 43-62.

        Nattier, Jan. "Visible & Invisible: The Politics of Representation in Buddhist America." Tricycle: The Buddhist Review 5, 1 (1995), 42-49.

        Nattier, Jan. "Buddhism Comes to Main Street." Wilson Quarterly, Spring 1997, 72-80.

        Nattier, Jan. "Buddhist Studies in the Post-Colonial Age." Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65, 2 (Summer 1997), 469-485.

        Nattier, Jan. "Who is a Buddhist? Charting the Landscape of Buddhist America." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhist America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 183-195.

        Prebish, Charles S. "Two Buddhisms Reconsidered." Buddhist Studies Review 10 (1993), 187-206.

        Prebish, Charles S. "The Academic Study of Buddhism in the United States: A Current Analysis." Religion 24 (1994), 271-278.

        Prebish, Charles S. "The Academic Study of Buddhism in America: A Silent Sangha." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 183-214.

        Tweed, Thomas A. "Asian Religions in America: Reflections on an Emerging Subfield." In Walter Conser and Sumner Twiss (eds.). Religious Diversity and American Religious History: Studies in Traditions and Cultures. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.

        Tweed, Thomas A. "Night Stand Buddhists and Other Creatures: Sympathizers, Adherents, and the Study of Religion." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, U. K.: Curzon Press, 1999, 71-90.

        Williams, Duncan Ryuken. "Where to Study?" Tricycle: The Buddhist Review 6, 3 (Spring 1997), 68-69, 115-117.

         

        5. Further Topics, Miscellenous

        Butler, Katy. "Events are the Teacher: Working through the Crisis at San Francisco Zen Center." CoEvolution Quarterly. Winter: 112-123, 1983.

        Butler, Katy. "Encountering the Shadow in Buddhist America." Common Boundary. (May/June, 1990), 14-22.

        Corless, Roger. "Coming Out in the Sangha: Queer Community in American Buddhism." In Charles S. Prebish and Kenneth K. Tanaka (eds.), The Faces of Buddhism in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 253-265.

        Fox, Stephen. "Boomer Dharma: The Evolution of Alternative Spiritual Communities in Modern new Mexico." In Ferenc Szasz and Richard Etalain (eds.). Religion in Modern New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997, 145-170.

        Hayes, Richard P. "The Internet as Window onto American Buddhism" In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 168-179.

        Hubbard, Jamie. "Upping the Ante: budstud@millenium.end.edu." Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 18, 2 (1995).

        Kornfield, Jack. "Sex Lives of the Gurus." Yoga Journal. 63 (July-August1985), 26-28 and 66.

        Numrich, Paul David. "Local Inter-Buddhist Associations in North America." In Duncan Ryuken Williams and Christopher S. Queen (eds.), American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1999, 117-142.


         

        Acknowledgements: Many thanks to Charles S. Prebish, Richard H. Seager, Mavis Fenn, Sandra Bell, Franz A. Metcalf, Paul D. Numrich, Alioune Koné and Frank J. Korom for help and suggestions.

      Martin Baumann,
      Department for the History of Religions
      University of Lucerne,
      Kasernenplatz 3, 6003 Luzern
      Switzerland.
      Fax: ++41-41-228-6190

      E-mail: martin.baumann@unilu.ch, web-site: Religionswissenschaftliches Seminar